Multilingual Margins: A journal of multilingualism from the periphery 2021-04-13T08:46:37+00:00 Sam Mabija Open Journal Systems <p>A journal of multilingualism from the periphery</p> Introduction 2021-04-13T07:41:18+00:00 Felix Banda David Sani Mwanza <p>The articles in this special issue cover a range of topics related to coloniality, language ideologies, language policy and classroom practice in Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The findings and conclusions reached have relevance not just to southern African countries, but to the so-called Global South generally.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Language ideology, policy and classroom practices in Oshiwambo speaking areas, Northern Namibia 2021-04-13T07:47:44+00:00 Kristof Iipinge <p>The study problematized language ideologies and policy to explore the efficacy of using English as the Language of Learning and Teaching (LOLT) among Oshiwambo speaking learners in the Omusati region of Northern Namibia. Focus group interviews with ESL teachers, interviews with the English Head of Departments (HODs), classroom observations and informal chats with the grade 12 learners were carried out at six secondary schools. The study finds that students struggle to partake in meaningful classroom interaction and to comprehend instruction and content in English. Although students may express themselves better in Oshiwambo, they are not allowed. Some ESL teachers would use Oshiwambo to maintain order in class, but avoid using Oshiwambo to help struggling learners believing this would negatively impact learners’ English proficiency. Some ESL teachers were also found to blame ESL content subject teachers for learners’ poor English proficiency, as they used Oshiwambo in class to teach and explain content. We conclude that ESL classroom practice is teacher-centred by default, and students are muted as they find themselves with no voice to express themselves efficiently and efficaciously, and deaf to classroom content delivered in an unfamiliar language, English.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparing language ideologies in multilingual classrooms across Norway and Zambia 2021-04-13T07:56:38+00:00 Jonas Yassin Iversen Sitwe Benson Mkandawire <p>This article compares the language ideologies (Kroskrity 2000) of pre- and in-service teachers in Norway and Zambia respectively. Despite their historical, political, and linguistic differences, both countries struggle to adapt their educational systems to students’ multilingualism. Thus, it is interesting to see how pre- and in-service teachers from the two countries consider the role of multilinguals within their respective education systems. The data are from two qualitative studies about multilingualism in education from Norway and Zambia that explore pre- and in-service teachers’ language ideologies (Kroskrity 2000). Based on focus group interviews with 24 Norwegian pre-service teachers and 36 Zambian in-service teachers, the current article shows that the Norwegian pre-service teachers and the Zambian in-service teachers expressed convergent descriptions of the challenges associated with multilingualism in education. Yet the teachers revealed divergent language ideologies in relation to how to solve these challenges. While the Norwegian pre-service teachers conveyed rather monoglossic language ideologies, the Zambian in-service teachers aligned themselves with more heteroglossic ideologies. In line with these language ideologies, they positioned themselves differently towards the current language policies in the two countries. This divergent pattern is discussed in light of the specific language ecologies of the two states.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The efficacy of translanguaging as pedagogic practice in selected Namibian multilingual primary classrooms 2021-04-13T08:04:04+00:00 Begani Ziambo Mashinja David Sani Mwanza <p>This article aims to explore the initial literacy and epistemic benefits of translanguaging as a pedagogic practice in multilingual Namibia. Using notions of recontextualization and translanguaging and classroom observation and data from documents, the article shows how pre-primary teachers and learners draw on heteroglossic repertoires for literacy development and epistemic access. It is argued that this reframes the classroom, not as a site of monolingual epistemic violence, but as a democratic space for initial literacy and epistemic development. The article concludes with an argument for the legitimization of heteroglossic practices in multilingual Namibian classrooms if effective teaching and learning of initial literacy is the goal of basic education</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quantitative and qualitative benefits of translanguaging pedagogic practice among first graders in multilingual classrooms of Lundazi district in Zambia 2021-04-13T08:13:31+00:00 Friday Nyimbili David Sani Mwanza <p>The aim of the paper is assess the pedagogical benefits of translanguaging using a quasi-experiment where two literacy classes with similar sociolinguistic composition were taught differently. In this case, the control class strictly followed the ‘monolingual’ language policy while the experimental class was taught using translanguaging. The idea was to see whether translanguaging could lead to any measurable literacy development benefits on the learner. Through interviews with the class teacher and classroom observations, the paper also sought to bring out the qualitative benefits which were observed or experienced throughout the experiment. A total of 82 pupils participated in the study with one teacher who taught both classes. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS and a Levene’s test of variance was used to analyse the test results while thematic analysis was used for qualitative data analysis. Post experimental test results showed higher average mean scores for the experimental group (M=15.10) than the control group (M=11.71). The Cohen’s d=0.98 for the post-test showed the large effect size above .8. The performance of learners in the experimental group was significantly different from the control group [t (52.960 = 4.454, p&lt;0.001]. Thus, the difference in literacy performance can be attributed to the translanguaging practices which were used to teach literacy in the experimental class. Additional results showed that as a result of translanguaging, there was increased learner classroom participation, multiliteracy development, cultural preservation and learners’ identity affirmation. The study concludes that when the curriculum is decolonised and the classroom is liberated through recognition of learners’ linguistic repertoires, learning outcomes improve. The paper makes a unique contribution to knowledge by providing objective data from an experiment to show the educational benefits of translanguaging.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Language situation and language policy in-education in Zimbabwe: A perspective towards Tonga learners 2021-04-13T08:23:08+00:00 Khama Hang'ombe Isaac Mumpande <p>This study examines the language situation in Zimbabwe with a bias towards the language policy in-education. It seeks to establish the effect of the language policy in-education in Zimbabwe on the academic performance of the Tonga learners. The researchers sought to establish how the use of either Shona or Ndebele as medium of instruction and the learning of these languages as subjects negatively impacted on the performance of Tonga learners in primary schools. Our analysis goes beyond understanding the academic performance of Tonga learners and also seeks to establish the impact of such a status quo on other aspects of the Tonga people’s lives such as culture and identity because whatever goes on in the classroom has a bearing on these social arenas. The data for this study were collected from native Tonga speakers, especially those that went to school before the language policy changed, that is, who were using Shona, Ndebele and/or English as medium of instruction in the education system in Zimbabwe at lower grades. The study established that the peripheralisation and marginalisation of Tonga in the education sector dealt a huge blow on the psyche, and self-confidence of the Tonga learners and their society at large in Zimbabwe. The study concluded that there is however, hope for the Tonga learners and community, ensuing from the official recognition of Tonga language, among other former marginalised languages, in the 2013 National Constitution and the subsequent amendment of the Education Act in 2020. These two critical developments will, without doubt, reverse the hegemony of Shona and Ndebele languages as medium of instructions in schools.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Educating for marginalization: normative implications of the Malawian medium of instruction policy 2021-04-13T08:30:07+00:00 Chikumbutso Herbert Manthalu Emmanuel Nzomera Ngwira <p>In 2014 the Malawian Government amended its education policy to make English the sole medium of instruction from basic primary level to tertiary level. Prior to the amendment, the policy stated that the medium of instruction for the first four classes of basic education should be the dominant vernacular language in the local area, given Malawi's multilingualism. This paper critically examines the normative implications of the current policy. Using Seyla Benhabib's (2011) theory of communicative or concrete universalism, the article argues that this policy preserves and perpetuates a duo-pronged form of marginalization. In the first sense the policy marginalises the unprivileged majority students and communities for whom English is not even a second language, but also have almost non-existent opportunities for engaging the English language outside the school domain. The second form of marginalization occasioned by this policy pertains to the ultimate devaluation and extinguishing of concrete local ways of being human that are expressed through local culture, art and literature in favour of those associated with the English language. It is argued that such systematic forms of marginalization are a result and perpetuation of colonial behaviour that undermines local cultures, literature, and ways of being human as the necessary cost for having globally relevant education. Ultimately, it is contended that an ostensible need for choice for globally relevant education between the indigenous local and the Eurocentric global poses a false dilemma. Instead, ideal globally relevant education ought to centre on both local and global interests as a matter of moral necessity. The paper, therefore, proposes as a remedy to the moral ills caused by this policy, multilingual and translanguaging approaches to both national language and language of instruction policies. In this vein, an argument is made for deliberate, sustained and systematic support from the Malawian government towards the enhancement of local languages and local art and literature.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prophets without honour at home: A view from the margins 2021-04-13T08:36:04+00:00 Moffat Sebola <p>This article is a personal reflection on how serving as a lecturer of an African language at a multi-lingual South African university has been like thus far for the author. In its narrative and perhaps even autobiographical mode, the article further encapsulates the author’s formative influences towards pursuing, studying, teaching and writing in an African language (Tshivenḓa) within an academic sphere of South Africa. Furthermore, the article foregrounds the challenges faced by a novice lecturer and scholar in marginalised languages such as Tshivenḓa, which include, among others, the lack of intensive mentorship in the teaching and learning of Tshivenḓa, limited opportunities to publish in scholarly and accredited journals, students’ and lecturers’ negative perceptions towards the mother-tongue, minimal reviewers and examiners of journal articles, research proposals, dissertations and theses written in Tshivenḓa. Apart from airing the author’s grievances, the article also vanguards the author’s hope that African languages such as Tshivenḓa will eventually move from the margins to the centre of epistemic and other forms of pedagogic discourse within the South African context, and perhaps even beyond. To this end, some opinions on how this hope can be fulfilled are provided.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Table of Contents 2021-04-13T07:32:44+00:00 Quentin Williams <p>Table of Content</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial 2021-04-13T07:37:54+00:00 Christopher Stroud Quentin Williams <p>We are pleased to be able to offer this special issue ‘Coloniality, language ideologies, policy and classroom practice in Southern Africa: Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, brought together by co-editors Felix Banda, University of the Western Cape and David Sani Mwanza, University of Zambia. And we thank the editors for the work and dedication in bringing this collection to fruition</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book Review: ‘Metasex - The Discourse of Intimacy and Trangression’ (2020), by A. Storch and N. Nassenstein 2021-04-13T08:44:42+00:00 Simon-Charles Thériault <p>Storch and Nassenstein’s, Metasex - The Discourse of Intimacy and Trangression (2020) propose a holistic approach to the discursive strategies and cultural meanings around sexualities and metasex, namely the ‘metapragmatic discourses on sex’ (p. 1). Broadly defined, sex talk (sexting, jokes, seduction, etc.) is nowadays studied in prominently online settings in the West. However, its existence is transposed into face-to-face encounters in somewhat ‘staged’ and ‘embodied’ experiences in other parts of the world (p. 14). Using a pragmatic and ethnolinguistic lens, the book moves away from a sensationalist and etic interpretation of sexual discourses, materials, and consumerism by broadening the research scope and taking into account Southern and African perspectives that reveal the intricacies and multiple meanings of metasex and discourses of intimacy, transgression, and sensualization</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Back Cover 2021-04-13T08:38:40+00:00 Quentin Williams <p>Back Cover</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##