- All contributions must be copy-edited before submission and again if substantial changes are made. Please follow the guidelines provided below. For general matters not covered here, please consult relevant style guides for assistance. We recommend New Hart’s Rules, Oxford University Press, 2005 and the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition), Chicago University Press, 2003. Concerning reference lists, please follow our style regarding punctuation and abbreviation (or the lack thereof) and only use the abovementioned style guides for guidance on what information to include.
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- Multilingual Margins accepts any spelling conventions as long as these are applied consistently throughout the paper.
- We follow the conventions set out below.
- Quotation marks.
- Quoted matter: enclose in single quotation marks; the full stop follows the closing quotation mark, unless it is part of the quoted sentence itself. Commas that break a quotation are included in the quotation, but not commas that form part of the containing sentence.
Mazrui (1995: 168) mentions that language may have a ‘dual community role as an instrument and as a symbol’.
Williams, Bórquez and Basáñez (2008: 18) continue, ‘Although the language barrier remains a problem, many journals now provide abstracts in English and, increasingly, journals and databases are encouraging bilingual and multilingual publication.’
‘In some Bantu languages,’ he explains, ‘nouns start with an initial vowel (or preprefix)’ (Miti 2009: 39).
They note how these ‘produce desire and aspiration’, and how this is done ‘across many varied scales, involving different languages, different registers and variable media’ (Stroud and Mpendukana 2009: 372).
- Quotations within quotations: enclose in double quotation marks.
According to Banda (2009: 173), ‘These “school inspectors”, as they came to be known, were unpopular with African teachers’.
- Other uses:
- Enclose newly coined, unfamiliar or ironically used words or phrases in single quotation marks.
His notion of ‘linguistic citizenship’
- Enclose the translation of non-English words or phrases (in an English article) in quotation marks.
Here the word pasella means ‘free and without cost’.
- Serial comma (Oxford comma).
- Please use the serial comma before and and or in a list.
multilingualism, participatory democracy, and socio-economic development
mother tongue, second additional language, or third additional language
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- For page and date ranges please use an unspaced en dash (Ctrl+minus sign on your keyboard’s number pad; or Alt+0150).
2000–2007; 159–161; January–March, but 6 January to 8 March
- Forward slash (/) or solidus.
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- Ampersand (&).
- Avoid, except where a publisher’s name or other company name contains it.
Use for the following purposes:
- To mark a word or a letter used to refer to itself.
The term multiliteracies is used [but, the notion of ‘linguistic citizenship’]
They use the word dispensation to denote this.
The letter y represents more than one sound in English.
- For words and short phrases in another language, unless these are words that have become familiar in English (like ‘et cetera’, ‘veldt’, ‘wanderlust’) or are commonly used scholarly terms like ‘et al.’ and ‘i.e.’ (or where italics will cause confusion, as here, where quotation marks were used so that readers are not prompted to italicize familiar words).
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- Titles and ranks. Use capital letters only when the title or rank is used before the name as part of the name. When the title alone is used in subsequent references, use lower case.
Emeritus Archbishop Desmond Tutu; the archbishop; Desmond Tutu, emeritus archbishop of the Anglican Church
President Barak Obama; the president; Barak Obama, president of the United States
Rector Brian O’Connell; the rector; Brian O’Connell, the rector of the University of the Western Cape
He wanted to become prime minister.
- Buildings and institutional bodies. Use capital letters for the full name, but lower case for subsequent references where only the generic term like building, choir, or committee is used.
the Wilcocks Building; the building
the Libertas Choir; the choir
the Central Research Committee; the committee
the Post Graduate Board of Studies; the board
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see table 1
as explained in note 3
the image in figure 5
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- Specific cases. What follows is a list of specific words and phrases with which authors may struggle, or for which we have a preferred treatment.
- Diaspora – capitalize only in reference to the Jewish Diaspora, for all other references use lower case.
- Reference all direct quotations.
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- Date of publication:
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- Use headline style (see section on capitalization above)
- Add subtitles where they appear.
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- Online references:
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- Treat names of websites the same as book and journal titles and individual page or article titles the same as journal article titles or book chapters.
- Provide the full URL (not only the main website address) between pointed brackets (<>).
- It is not necessary to supply the date of online access, except where it is the only date available (see below), where the information is particularly time sensitive, or where the publisher requires it.
- Guidelines for cases where basic information may be lacking:
- If there is no specific author to be cited, the owner of the website may be used.
- If an article is not individually dated, the date of creation of the website may be used. If no date is available at all, the date of access may be given in brackets after the URL (accessed day month year).
- If there is no discernable title, a short descriptive phrase may be used in place of a title.
Rahman, Tariq. 2008. Language, Ideology and Power: Language-learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India. Hyderabad: Orient BlackSwan.
Cameron, Deborah, Elizabeth Frazer, Penelope Harvey, M. B. H. Rampton, and Kay Richardson (eds). 1992. Researching Language: Issues of Power and Method. London and New York: Routledge.
Foucault, Michel. 1979. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by A. Sheridan. New York: Random House.
- Chapter in a book
Afendras, Evangelos, A. 1980. Language in Singapore society: Towards a systemic account. In Evangelos A. Afendras and Eddie C. Y. Kuo (eds). Language and Society in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore University Press. 3–35.
Sacks, Harvey. 1995. Lectures on Conversation (vol. 1). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. [Note that titles in more than one edition may be followed by the edition number in the same way as the volume number follows here, e.g. Communicating with Strangers: An Approach to Intercultural Communication (3rd edition)]
- Journal article
Lim, Lisa. 2007. Mergers and acquisitions: On the ages and origins of Singapore English particles. World Englishes 26 (4): 446–473.
Rampton, Ben (ed.). 1999. Styling the Other. Special issue of Journal of Sociolinguistics 3/4.
- Thesis or dissertation
Zhang, Qing. 2001. Changing economy, changing markets: A sociolinguistic study of Chinese yuppies. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Stanford, California: Stanford University.
- Newspaper article
Muya. W. 1996. Why pupils are failing in K.C.S.E. English. Daily Nation 30 March: 15.
- Online reference
Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa (WIMSA). 2008. Who are the San? WIMSA official website. <http://www.wimsanet.org/about-the-san/who-are-the-san>.
Matiki, Alfred J. 2010. A case review of Tamil diglossia. Language In India 10 (November): 392–397. <http://www.languageinindia.com/nov2010/tamildiglossia.html>
- Unpublished material
Sacks, Harvey. 1970–1971. Unpublished lecture notes. University of California at Irvine.
Hoffman, Michol F. 1999. Plasure not pleasure: Lax vowel lowering in Canadian English. Paper presented at the 10th International Conference in Methods in Dialectology. Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland.